A post last week (see here) contained a high-level overview of the Technip matter as described in the DOJ release.
Let's take a closer look at the criminal information (see here) and the deferred prosecution agreement (see here).
Not surprisingly, the Technip information largely mirrors the criminal information previously filed in February 2009 (see here) against the Kellogg Brown & Root entity also part of the joint venture engaged in the Bonny Island bribery scheme.
That is, the Technip information charges conspiracy to violate the FCPA and violations of the FCPA's antibribery provisions and alleges that Technip was part of a joint venture ("JV") in Nigeria to design, build and expand LNG facilities on Bonny Island. According to the information, JV profits, revenues, and expenses were equally shared among the four JV partners. The JV's Steering Committee consisted of high-level executives from each of the four companies and the Steering Committee made major decisions on behalf of the JV, including whether to hire agents to assist the JV in winning contracts, who to hire as agents, and how much to pay the agents.
The information charges that the JV operated through three Portuguese special purpose corporations, including a corporation (#3), 25% owned by Technip, specifically used to enter into consulting agreements with JV agents.
The criminal conduct charged centers on two agents hired by the JV.
The first agent, Jeffrey Tesler was a citizen of the United Kingdom who used a Gibraltar-based company as a vehicle to enter into agent contracts and receive payments from the JV. The information charges that the JV paid the company over $130 million to bribe high-ranking Nigerian government officials. According to the information, Tesler was an agent of the JV and each of the JV companies.
The second agent was a global trading company headquartered in Tokyo (the "Japanese Agent"), which was hired by the JV to help it obtain business in Nigeria, including by paying bribes to Nigerian officials. The information charges that the JV paid the consulting company over $50 million to bribe Nigerian government officials. According to the information, the Japanese Agent was an agent of the JV and each of the JV companies.
According to the information, between 1995 and 2004, the JV was awarded four contracts (collectively valued at over $6 billion) to build the Bonny Island Project and alleges that Technip, Tesler, the Japanese Agent, Kellogg Brown & Root, and others, were engaged in a conspiracy to obtain and retain the contracts "through the promise and payment of tens of millions in bribes to officials of the Executive Branch of Nigeria, officials of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), officials of Nigeria LNG Limited (NLNG) and others."
[According to the information, NNPC was a Nigerian government-owned company and an entity and instrumentality of the Government of Nigeria whose officers and employees were "foreign officials" under the FCPA. According to the information, NLNG was also an entity and instrumentality of the Government of Nigeria whose officers and employees were "foreign officials" under the FCPA, notwithstanding the fact that NLNG was 51% owned by multinational oil companies. Why? Presumably because, as the information alleges, "through the NLNG board members appointed by NNPC, among other means, the Nigerian government exercised control over NLNG, including but not limited to the abilty to block the award" of the relevant contracts.]
Among other means of the conspiracy, the information alleges that:
"Senior executives and employees of Technip and their co-conspirators caused wire transfers totaling approximately $132 million to be sent from [#3's] bank account in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, to bank accounts in New York, New York, to be further credited to bank accounts in Switzerland and Monaco controlled by Tesler for Tesler to use to bribe Nigerian government officials."
"Senior executives and employees of Technip and their co-conspirators caused wire transfers totaling over $50 million to be sent from [#3's] bank account in Amsterdam, The Netherlands to [Japanese Agent's] bank account in Japan for [the Japanese Agent to use to bribe Nigerian government officials."
Based on the same core conduct, the information also charges a substantive violation of the FCPA's antibribery provisions and alleges that "Technip
caused [...] corrupt U.S. dollar payments to be wire transferred
from [#3's] bank account in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, via correspondent bank accounts in New York, New York, to bank accounts of [Tesler's Gibraltar based company] in Switzerland for use in part to bribe Nigerian government officials."
The DPA has a term of two years and seven months. A DPA is a less harsh resolution to an FCPA enforcement action because, while the criminal charges are technically filed, the charges are deferred or not prosecuted during the term of the DPA. If Technip abides by its obligations under the DPA, the criminal charges will be dismissed when the DPA's term expires.
Pursuant to the DPA, Technip admitted, accepted, and acknowledged that it is responsible for the acts of its employees, subsidiaries, and agents as detailed in the above criminal information.
According to the DPA, the DOJ agreed to enter into the agreement with Technip based on the following factors: "(a) Technip cooperated with the DOJ's investigation of Technip and others; (b) Technip undertook remedial measures, including the implementation of an enhanced compliance program, and agreed to undertake further remedial measures; (c) Technip agreed to continue to cooperate with the DOJ in any ongoing investigation of the conduct of Technip and its employees, agents, consultants, contractors, subcontractors, subsidiaries, and others relating to violations of the FCPA; and (d) the impact on Technip, including collateral consequences, of a guilty plea or criminal conviction. (emphasis added).
According to the DPA, the fine range under the advisory U.S. Sentencing Guidelines for Technip's conduct is $318.4 million - $636.8 million. Technip agreed to pay a criminal penalty of $240 million or approximately 25% below the bottom of the fine range. The Technip enforcement action is thus another example of the DOJ allowing a corporation to settle significant bribery allegations for an amount below even the bottom range of fines available under the advisory Sentencing Guidelines.
Pursuant to the DPA, Technip agreed to engage a corporate compliance monitor for a two year period. The DPA specifically states that this individual will be a "French national."
Representing Technip in the FCPA enforcement action was Robert Luskin from Patton Boggs LLP (see here) and John Savarese from Wachtell Lipton Rosen & Katz (see here).
As referenced above, the Technip allegations largely mirror the previous allegations against the Kellogg Brown & Root entity also part of the joint venture engaged in the Bonny Island bribery scheme.
How does the DOJ component of these two FCPA enforcement actions compare?
Technip settled pursuant to a DPA and paid a $240 million criminal penalty - an amount 25% below the bottom range allowed under the advisory Sentencing Guidelines.
Kellogg Brown & Root was required to plead guilty and paid a $402 million criminal penalty - an amount within the advisory Sentencing Guidelines range of $376.8 million - $753.6 million.
The disparate treatment of Technip and Kellogg Brown & Root - two entities involved in the same joint venture engaged in the same bribery scheme - is likely due to the fact that, per the government's allegations, Kellogg Brown & Root appeared to have played a more active role in the bribery scheme. Specifically, Albert Jack Stanley, a former officer and director of various Kellogg Brown & Root entities, was directly involved in the bribery scheme as evidenced by his prior guilty plea (see here).