Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Technip Joins the Bonny Island Bribery Club

A French company bribes Nigerian foreign officials with the end result being $338 million paid into the United States treasury.

Welcome to the sometimes wacky world of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act enforcement. Except in this case, the end result is not so wacky because the French company, Technip (see here) was a U.S. issuer, and thus subject to the FCPA, because, between August 2001 and November 2007, it had American Depository Shares registered with and listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In addition to being an Issuer subject to the FCPA, "Technip and other members of the joint venture [described below] routinely made use of the U.S. mails and of U.S. common carriers, and of other instrumentalities of U.S. interstate commerce" including improper payments "routed through banks in New York."

The Technip FCPA enforcement action has been anticipated since February when the company (see here) foreshadowed the pending settlement.

Yesterday, the DOJ and SEC announced the settlement. It includes payment of a $240 criminal penalty pursuant to a DOJ deferred prosecution agreement and payment of $98 million in disgorgement and prejudgment interest pursuant to a settled SEC civil complaint.

The below post summarizes the DOJ release (to my knowledge the DOJ deferred prosecution agreement and criminal information are not yet publicly available) and the SEC settled civil complaint.


The DOJ release (here) states that Technip "has agreed to pay a $240 million criminal penalty to resolve charges related to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) for its participation in a decade-long scheme to bribe Nigerian government officials to obtain engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contracts [...] to build liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on Bonny Island, Nigeria, [contracts that] were valued at more than $6 billion."

According to the release, "Technip, Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. (KBR) (see here for the prior FCPA enforcement action), and two other companies were part of a four-company joint venture that was awarded four EPC contracts."

The release further states that "Technip authorized the joint venture to hire two agents, Jeffrey Tesler (see here for the criminal indictment) and a Japanese trading company, to pay bribes to a range of Nigerian government officials, including top-level executive branch officials, to assist Technip and the joint venture in obtaining the EPC contracts. According to the release, "at crucial junctures preceding the award of EPC contracts, a senior executive of Technip, KBR’s former CEO, Albert "Jack" Stanley (see here and here for the prior FCPA enforcement action), and others met with successive holders of a top-level office in the executive branch of the Nigerian government to ask the office holders to designate a representative with whom the joint venture should negotiate bribes to Nigerian government officials." According to the release, "the joint venture paid approximately $132 million to a Gibraltar corporation controlled by Tesler and more than $50 million to the Japanese trading company during the course of the bribery scheme" and that "Technip intended for these payments to be used, in part, for bribes to Nigerian government officials."

As has become the norm in corporate FCPA prosecutions, Technip will not be required to plead guilty to anything as the criminal charges (one count of conspiracy and one count of violating the FCPA), while filed, will be deferred pursuant to two-year deferred prosecution agreement.

In a press release (see here) Technip Chairman and CEO, Thierry Pilenko said:

"The final agreement with the US authorities, completely in line with the road map that we laid out in February, puts this legacy story behind us and enables us to focus on continuing to develop Technip’s business. We stand by Technip's commitment to carrying out its business activities ethically and according to both the spirit and letter of the law worldwide. The Board of Directors of Technip and its management are strongly committed to the continued enhancement of our internal compliance policies and processes."

Technip's release further states:

"The DOJ investigation of Technip was resolved through a deferred prosecution agreement, in which the Department of Justice agreed not to pursue a prosecution of Technip in return for Technip’s agreement to undertake a variety of steps during the next two years, including maintaining and enhancing its compliance program and cooperating with the DOJ. Technip agreed to pay USD 240 million to the DOJ in eight equal installments of USD 30 million over the next two years. Technip will retain a French national, approved by the Department of Justice, to serve as an independent corporate monitor, who will be chiefly responsible for reviewing Technip’s compliance initiatives and recommending improvements."

Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General Mythili Raman of the Criminal Division stated: "The resolutions announced today demonstrate once again the department’s commitment to aggressively investigate and prosecute international bribery by U.S. and foreign corporations alike."


In a settled civil complaint (see here) charging FCPA anti-bribery violations and FCPA books and records and internal violations, the SEC alleged that "between at least 1995 and 2004, senior executives at Technip, among others, devised and implemented a scheme to bribe Nigerian government officials to assist in obtaining multiple contracts worth over $6 billion to build liquefied natural gas (“LNG”) production facilities on Bonny Island, Nigeria." According to the SEC, "to conceal the illicit payments, Technip and others, through the joint venture, entered into sham 'consulting' or 'services' agreements with intermediaries who would then funnel their purportedly legitimate fees to Nigerian officials." Specifically, the SEC alleged that "Technip, through the joint venture, implemented this scheme by using a Gibraltar shell company controlled by a solicitor based in the United Kingdom (“the UK Agent” [Tesler]) and a Japanese trading company (“the Japanese Agent”) as conduits for the bribes" and that "as a result of the scheme, numerous books and records of Technip contained false information relating to, among other things, the UK Agent and the Japanese Agent, and the payments made to them."

As to Technip's internal controls violations, the SEC alleges as follows:

"Technip conducted due diligence on the UK Agent that was not adequate to detect, deter or prevent the UK Agent from paying bribes, and Technip conducted no due diligence on the Japanese Agent."

"Although the executives of Technip who participated in the joint venture were aware of [the FCPA's] prohibitions, Technip did not implement adequate controls to ensure compliance with the Act. For example, Technip did not adopt due diligence procedures as to agents that were adequate to detect, deter or prevent the payment of bribes by agents. The due diligence procedures adopted by Technip only required that potential agents respond to a written questionnaire, seeking minimal background information about the agent. No additional due diligence was required, such as an interview of the agent, or a background check, or obtaining information beyond that provided by the answers to the questionnaire. A senior executive of Technip admitted that the due diligence procedures adopted by Technip were a perfunctory exercise, conducted so that Technip would have some documentation in its files of purported due diligence. In fact, Technip executives knew that the purpose of the agreements with the UK Agent was to funnel bribes to Nigerian officials, and therefore certain answers by the UK Agent to the questionnaire were false."

According to the SEC release (see here) "without admitting or denying the SEC’s allegations, Technip has consented to the entry of a court order permanently enjoining it from" future FCPA violations "and ordering Technip to disgorge $98 million in ill-gotten profits derived from the scheme and prejudgment interest."

Other members of the TSKJ joint venture that also potentially face FCPA exposure include Snamprogetti Netherlands B.V. (see below information regarding Eni SpA), and JGC of Japan (see here).

In March 2010, Eni SpA of Italy disclosed (here) as follows:

"Snamprogetti SpA, the holding company of Snamprogetti Netherlands BV, was a wholly owned subsidiary of Eni until February 2006, when an agreement was entered into for the sale of Snamprogetti to Saipem SpA and Snamprogetti was merged into Saipem as of October 1, 2008. Eni holds a 43% participation in Saipem. In connection with the sale of Snamprogetti to Saipem, Eni agreed to indemnify Saipem for a variety of matters, including potential losses and charges resulting from the investigations into the TSKJ matter referred [...}, even in relation to Snamprogetti subsidiaries."

The disclosure further stated:

"As to Eni, the contacts with the US authorities have been intensified recently. Based on the ongoing status of the discussions, the Company has been able to estimate the cost of a global resolution of all potential claims arising from the investigation with the US authorities, similarly to Technip. As a result of this, a provision in the amount of €250 million has been accrued, also considering the contractual obligations assumed by Eni to indemnify Saipem as part of the divestment of Snamprogetti. Discussions with the US authorities are underway."

Stay tuned for additional analysis of the Technip DPA, criminal information, and other issues raised by the Technip enforcement action.


  1. Thank you for a very interesting and elucidating update on this matter which I have tried to follow for some time as it has unravelled.

    However, what to my mind increasingly begs an answer, is this; What about the Japanese fourth partner of the Bonny Island JV?

    To me it becomes ever more conspicuous that, as far as I'm aware, no news about sanctions against this company have hit the headlines this far.

    Is this correct, and if so do you have any reasonable explanation for it, or are deliberations with the DoJ/SEC still on-going?

    Best regards,


  2. The Japanese entity, JGC Corporation, disclosed the following in its Annual Report released May 14, 2010:

    "In or around 1995, JGC joined a consortium formed by M.W. Kellogg Company (a U.S. company that later became KBR), Technip (a French company), and Snamprogetti (an Italian company) in order to i) bid for the construction of liquefied natural gas plant in Bonny Island, Nigeria (“Project”) and ii) implement the Project if awarded. The consortium was called “TSJK”. TSKJ was awarded the contract for the first staged of the Project (trains 1 & 2) in 1995, and thereafter up to 2004 three additional contracts to build additional 4 trains.

    In or around 2002, French authority initiated investigations into TSKJ after allegations that in relation to the Project bribery payments were made to Nigerian government officials, and, in 2004, U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) initiated investigations in respect of the alleged breach of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

    As publicly reported, in 2009, KBR reached settlements with DOJ and SEC as a result of the aforesaid investigations. Technip and ENI (the parent company of Snamprogetti) announced in their recent disclosure that they have created accounting reserves or a potential settlement of the U.S. investigation.

    We hereby report that DOJ has been in contact with JGC regarding their investigation of the TSKJ matter and JGC and DOJ are engaged in discussions about a potential resolution of that investigation relating to JGC.

    Under the current circumstances, the impact of the ongoing discussions with DOJ on JGC’s operations cannot be estimated."