Jaime Guerrero (Foley & Lardner - here) provides a first-hand account of yesterday's oral arguments in the Carson "foreign official" challenge.
See here for a prior post, including links to the briefs.
On Monday afternoon, May 9, 2011, United States District Judge James V. Selna heard oral arguments on defendants’ motion to dismiss the indictment on the “foreign official” issue in the Carson case in the Central District of California. In their moving papers, the defendants made three separate arguments in support of their motion to dismiss Counts One through Ten of the Indictment. Specifically, the defendants argued that: first, as a matter of statutory interpretation, employees of the state-owned companies identified in the indictment fall beyond the scope of the FCPA’s definition of “foreign official;” second, to the extent there is an ambiguity in the statute, the rule of lenity mandates that the motion be resolved in defendants’ favor; and third, to the extent the FCPA could be construed to proscribe payments made or promised to employees of state-owned companies, the statute is unconstitutionally vague as applied to defendants.
During the hearing, counsel for the defendants focused the majority of their arguments on the FCPA’s purported lack of definition for “instrumentality” within the term “foreign official.” Defendants noted that Congress did not define “instrumentality” within the statute and that the government’s position created a definition that was unworkable and overbroad. Moreover, the defendants argued that it was impractical to wait for the trial to decide the factors that the jury would consider to determine whether the employees of state-owned companies were “foreign officials.” The defendants also argued that the Supreme Court’s recent decision in Skilling v. United States, 561 U.S. ___, 130 S. Ct. 2896, 2933 (2010), was the proper framework for deciding the FCPA “foreign official” challenge. Thereafter, the defendants argued that the FCPA statute was “vague as applied,” as there was no way for the individual defendants to have done anything more to determine if a state-owned entity was an “instrumentality.” The defendants argued that there was no rhyme or reason to the government’s determination of whether a state-owned entity was an “instrumentality,” and, as such, the statute was vague. Finally, the defendants argued that the rule of lenity mandated that the Court dismiss the indictment, as the statute was unconstitutionally ambiguous and that, if it was a tie between the government’s position and the defendants’ position, that the tie should go to the defendants.
The government responded first by noting that the defendants’ ignored the standards the Court had to apply when deciding a motion to dismiss the indictment, as the issues presented in the motion raised factual issues that had to be resolved by a jury. Citing Hagner v. United States, 285 U.S. 427 (1932), the government argued that because there were factual issues outstanding related to whether the state-owned entities were “instrumentalities,” the Court could not grant the motion to dismiss. The government also argued that the statute was not void for vagueness, as the statute’s mens rea or scienter requirement served to defeat the defendants’ claim that they did not know what they were doing was wrong. In particular, however, the government noted that the statute did not require a specific intent, but instead the government need only prove that the defendants knew that what they were doing was wrong.
District Judge Selna permitted the parties to argue their respective positions, interjecting on few occasions. During the defendants’ arguments that the definition of “instrumentality” in the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) could not be used as a reference point, or definition, for “instrumentality” in the FCPA statute, District Judge Selna asked whether the Court could infer whether Congress intended for the term “instrumentality” to have the same definition in the FCPA as the FSIA. District Judge Selna also inquired whether a finding that a state-owned entity was an “instrumentality” was self-evident, as the nature of the entity would be before the jury.
Ultimately, after hearing all arguments on defendants’ motion to dismiss, District Judge Selna took the motion under submission and reserved a final ruling on the motion for a later date.